Gallbladder and Biliary disease in Nursing
Introduction: Human liver produce bile which help in digestion of food particles and making cholesterol, fats, vitamins which are fat soluble. Bile also helps in extraction of waste products such as bilirubin, biliverdin, excess amount of cholesterol and certain extra amount of drugs from the body. Bile is carried out through ducts which comes to biliary tract which again goes into liver then gall bladder and lastly small intestine.
Studies says that due to some particular genes, obesity, old age, high lipid in daily diet and even some certain medications are the reason of increasing the risk of biliary disease.
Symptoms: The symptoms includes:
- Jaundice i.e yellowish skin.
- Pain in the abdomen.
- Vomiting or nausea
- Weight loss due to loss of appetite.
- High temperature.
- Light brown urine.
- Stool of clay colored.
Diagnosis: The following process should be performed to check the gall bladder related problems:
- Bloodtest to show the level of bilirubin.
- Pancreatic or abdominalsurgery if the patient is having gall bladder stone.
- Quadrantultrasound to know the enlargement of the bile duct.
- Computedtomography or magneticresonanceimaging to scan the liver.
- Endoescopicretrogradecholangio-pancreatography is performed to know the presence of cancer cells.
- Magneticresonancecholangio-pancreatography is done to obtain the MRI image.
- Cholangiography is performed to check any blockage across the vessels.
- Liver biopsy is examined to confirm the inflammation or cancer.
- Medications/ antibiotics: Medications are specialized for the increment of flow of bile from the liver where as antibiotics are used to treat further infections.
- Hepatoportoenterostomy is a medical process to perform when the ducts of bile are blocked, a specialized surgery is to perform to drain the bile from the liver.
- Endoscopicretrogradecholangio-pancreatography(ERCP) is done to remove bile stones from gall bladder.
- Cholecystectomy is a process in which the gall bladder stones are removed by the advanced. laparoscopic surgery.