Inflammatory bowel disease Nursing Assignment
Introduction: A condition where the small intestine is inflamed, this disorder is collectively termed as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This condition is due to the immune system itself harm the body tissues, gut-friendly bacteria, food in the gut which results in inflammation and injuries of the bowel. The inflammatory bowel disease is of two types which are as follows
- Ulcerativecolitis: This is a condition in which the inner lining of colon and rectum are affected by inflammation and ulcers which is long term lasting.
- Crohn’sdisease: This is a condition in which the lining of the digestive tract is affected deeply and spreads easily to the nearest tissues.
Cause: The cause of the disease is yet to know. But studies say that the combination of bacteria, viruses and some antigens activate the immune system to act oppositely causing the inflammation reaction to the intestinal wall. Another reason may be autoimmune disorders by the own body tissues which result in damage to the digestive tract, abdominal pain, diarrhea.
Symptoms: The symptoms and severity are totally bases on the affected area. The severity varies from medium to complicate.
- Pain or cramps in the abdomen due to ulcers.
- Bloody diarrhea.
- High temperature.
- Loss of weight and energy.
- Iron deficiency due to blood loss.
- Stool and blood test: The tests are performed to determine the level of infections, and the difference between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease.
- Sigmoidoscopy and colonoscopy: A sample of the intestinal lining is taken to check the ulcers or other damages.
- Capsuleendoscopy: The test is performed to confirm Crohn’s disease symptoms.
- CTscan and MRI: The tests are used to check the affected area of the intestine.
- Medications: To treat the inflammation doctors recommend anti-inflammatorymedicine. To restrict the damage due to the immune system towards its own cells and inflammation, an immunesuppressant is used.
Antibiotics are used to treat infections due to microorganisms. Antidiarrhealdrugs are used to treat diarrhea and bowel movements. These medications can cause side effects like rashes and infections.
- Surgery: Surgery procedure is used to remove the affected area and monitoring colon cancer.
Prevention: The preventive measures are:
- Having healthy foods.
- Having plenty of fluids.
- Regular exercise.
- Say no to smoking