Introduction: it is complex neurobehavioral conditions which include disturbances in social interaction and developmental language and communication. As it covers large spectrum of symptoms, skills, impairment therefore called autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Children with autism have trouble in communicating, understanding what people think and feel which makes very hard to express themselves with words, facial expressions.
Symptoms: Symptoms are characterised as followed:
avoiding eye contact with others
not responding to their name
late development of speech skills
having difficulty with maintaining conversation
frequently repeating phrases
apparent difficulty in understanding feelings and expressing their own
becoming preoccupied with objects, such as a toy or household object
lining up or arranging toys or objects in very orderly ways
Causes: The genetics and environmental factors may cause Autism:
Genetics: autism spectrum disorder can be associated with a genetic disorder, such as Rett syndrome or fragile X syndrome. Genetic changes (mutations) may increase the risk of autism spectrum disorder. Some genetic mutations seem to be inherited, while others occur spontaneously.
Environmental factor: The viral infections, medications or complications during pregnancy or air pollutants play very important role in autism spectrum disorder.
Complications: Social interactions, communication and behaviour lead to problem in successful learning, employment problem, inability to live independently, social isolation, and stress within family.
Treatment: there is no uniform treatment for autism. Therapies and strategies are available for managing the health issues that often accompany autism. These issues can include epilepsy, depression, obsessive-compulsive disorder and sleep disturbances.
Prevention: Early diagnosis and intervention is most helpful and can improve behaviour, skills and language development. However, intervention is helpful at any age.